Enrolling Now For Upcoming Classes


Close this search box.

50 Terms & Definitions You Should Know as a Computer Technician

Are you an aspiring computer repair technician and want to know the terms and definitions you will learn in a Computer Technician Networking Specialist program? Here are 50 terms and their definitions all computer repair technicians should know once they have completed a Computer Technician Networking Specialist program.

Computer Networking & Repair Terms & Definitions

Computer networking is the term for a set of computers connected together that share resources. The most common computer network is the internet. Here are 50 terms and their definitions that you should know the definition of as a computer repair technician.

1.  LANs

Local area networks, or LANs, are computers that are close enough to connect usually in the same building.

2.  WANs

Wide area networks, or WANs, are computers that are too far apart for a local area network and are therefore connected by telephone or radio waves.

3.  Wi-Fi

Wireless fidelity, or Wi-Fi, is wireless local area networking for computers or devices that connect to the internet via a wireless access point (WLAN).

4.  SOHO

Small office/home office, or SOHO, is sometimes called a virtual office. The term SOHO describes the network of a small office or home office.

5.  TCP/IP

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, or TCP/IP, is a set of networking protocols allowing multiple computers to communicate.

Soldering Terms & Definitions

Soldering is a term that describes the process of joining two pieces of metal using a filler metal.

6.  Soft Soldering

Soft soldering is the joining of small intricate parts that have low melting points.

7.  Hard Soldering

Hard soldering is the connection of two pieces of metal at a high temperature.

Digital and Binary Electronics Terms & Definitions

Digital and binary electronics are digital electronics that handle digital signals with discrete bands of analog levels.

8.  Binary Number Systems

This is a base 2 numerical system which uses two different symbols to represent number values. The two different symbols are 0 and 1.

9.  Logic Gates

Most logic gates have two inputs and one output. Every terminal is in one of the two binary conditions, 0 or 1.

10.  Shift Registers

Shift registers are used for the storage or transfer of data using the binary number system.

11.  Memory

Memory is a temporary storage area that holds data and instructions for an electronic device to function.

12.  Logic Counters

Logic counters are a number of latches with two stable states that are connected in sequence or in a series.

Hardware Component Terms & Definitions

Hardware components are the physical parts of a computer. Hardware is directed by the software to execute commands.

13.  Motherboard

A motherboard is a printed circuit board containing the components of an electronic device.

14.  Processor

This is the hardware within a computer that executes programs.

15.  Microprocessor

A microprocessor is a central processing unit, or CPU, contained on a single integrated circuit.

16.  Storage System

A storage system consists of computer components used to retain digital data.

17.  Power Supply

The power supply converts main AC current to low-voltage regulated DC current used to power an electronic device.

18.  Expansion Card

An expansion card is a circuit board that can be added to the motherboard to give extra memory for processing data.

19.  RAM

Random Access Memory, or RAM, is the term given to computer data storage used to store frequently accessed data to increase the speed of the system.

20.  Firmware

Firmware is permanent software programmed into a read-only memory that controls, monitors, and manipulates the data stored in an electronic device.

21.  Peripherals

Peripherals are devices used to input or output data to and from the user and an electronic device. The most widely used peripheral devices include mice, keyboards, monitors, and printers.

I/O Operation Terms & Definitions

I/O stands for input/output. This term refers to the communication between an electronic device and a person, the internet, or another information processing system.

22.  VGA

Video Graphics Array, or VGA, is the connector typically used to plug a peripheral, most likely a monitor, to an electronic device.

23.  S-Video

A standard definition video connection, or S-Video, separates black-and-white and color signals from the computer to a monitor.

24.  DVI

Digital Visual Interface, or DVI, is used to transmit digital signals from peripherals to a computer.

25.  HDMI

High-Definition Multimedia Interface, or HDMI, is used to transmit data between components, typically an electronic device and monitor or television.

26.  PS/2

PS/2 is a six-pin mini-DIN connector used to connect some PC compatible computers with keyboards and mice.

27.  USB

USB stands for Universal Serial Bus. It is used to connect a computer to devices and peripherals.

28.  FireWire

FireWire is an external connector, similar to a USB, that allows high-speed communication and data exchange between an electronic device and a peripheral.

29.  Serial Ports

A serial port is a communication interface that transfers one bit of data in or out to modems, terminals, and peripherals.

30.  Parallel Ports

A parallel port is a communication interface that transfers several bits of data simultaneously to peripherals.

31.  eSATA

A Serial Advanced Technology Attachment, or eSATA, provides a signal connection for external storage devices that use the computer for power.

32.  SCSI

Small Computer System Interface, or SCSI, is a set of standards for physically connecting and transferring data between electronic devices and peripherals.

Secondary Storage Device Terms & Definitions

Secondary storage devices are used for external memory directly accessible by the computer, until deleted or overwritten.

33.  Hard Disk Drives

Hard disk drives are data storage devices that use magnetic storage to store and retrieve digital information. Both internal and external hard drives are available.

34.  Optical Disk Drive

An optical disk drive, or ODD, uses laser light to read data from, or write data to, an optical disc including CDs, DVDs, and Blu-ray discs.

35.  Floppy Disk Drive

A floppy disk drive, or FDD, is a thin and flexible magnetic storage enclosure that stores data externally for electronic devices.

36.  RAID Systems

Redundant array of independent disks, or RAID, is data storage virtualization that combines multiple physical disk drives into a single logical unit for data redundancy and/or better performance.

Operating System Terms & Definitions

An operating system, or OS, consists of the software that supports a computer’s basic functions. The computer’s basic functions typically manage computer hardware and peripherals.

37.  System Maintenance

System maintenance involves the modification of a system to correct faults, improve performance, and/or adapt the system to a different environment.

38.  Backups

Backing up is the process of archiving a copy of data if needed to restore the original after a data loss event.

39.  Disaster Recovery Plan

A disaster recovery plan, or DRP, is a process to recover and protect a business’s IT infrastructure in the event of a disaster.

40.  Data Restoration

Data restoration is the salvaging of inaccessible, lost, corrupted, damaged, or formatted data from secondary storage or removable media files.

41.  Disk Cleanups

Disk cleanups are designed to free up disk space on a computer’s hard drive.

42.  Antivirus Software

Antivirus software detects and destroys computer viruses. A computer virus is code that is capable of copying itself to corrupt a system or destroy data.

43.  Antimalware

Antimalware is software that protects a computer from infections that are aimed at stealing data from the user or computer.

Malware Terms & Definitions

Some of the different types of malware follow below.

44.  Worms

A worm is a self-replicating computer program that penetrates an operating system and intends to spread malicious code, typically to consume bandwidth, delete files, and/or send documents via email.

45.  Trojan Horses

Trojan Horses are programs designed to breach the security of a computer system typically to allow hackers to gain access to a user’s system.

46.  Rootkits

A rootkit is software designed to hide, and once an operating system has been compromised, it replaces vital procedures needed to run the Windows operating system.

47.  Spyware

Spyware is software that gives users the ability to obtain information about another user’s computer activities and to collect personal information or monitor internet browsing activities.

48.  Keyloggers

A keylogger is a computer program that records every keystroke made by a computer user, typically to gain access to passwords and credit card information.

49.  Ransomware

Ransomware is software designed to block access to a computer system until a sum of money is paid.

50.  Adware

Adware is a program designed to display advertisements on your computer that redirect the user’s search requests to the advertising website and collect marketing-type data about the user. Most adware has your permission to collect data, unlike Trojan Horses that do not have your permission.

Now that you know 50 more terms and definitions for computers, ready to put your knowledge of computer networking and repair to the test? Hunter Business School graduates who complete the Computer Technician Networking Specialist program are prepared to pass the CompTIA (Computing Technology Industry Association) A+ certification exam. Hunter Business School offers day and evening classes to complete the diploma program and prepare students to become certified as a computer technician networking specialist.